Cancer Topics Index of Japan(2014/09/23~2014/09/29)海外がん情報とプレスリリースまとめ

Cancer Topics Index of Japan(2014/09/23~2014/09/29)


Flags <FDA, NIH, NCI, EMA>
◇NIH (National Institutes of Health)◇
NIH exceptional responders to cancer therapy study launched(全体的にはうまく作動しなかった臨床試験でも、例外的に優れた結果を残したものについて個別分子的要因の精査を開始:Exceptional Responders Initiative)
News & Events September 24, 2014
The Exceptional Responders Initiative, a study to investigate the molecular factors of tumors associated with exceptional treatment responses of cancer patients to drug therapies, was launched today by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health. Scientists will attempt to identify the molecular features of tumors that predict whether or not a particular drug or class of drugs will be beneficial. Investigators will examine tumor specimens from patients in clinical trials who achieved an exceptional response relative to other trial participants, or other patients who achieved an exceptional and unexpected response to a non-investigational therapy.
Exceptional Responders Initiative: Questions and Answers

◇FDA (Food and Drug Administration)◇
A Decade of Prostate Cancer Progress(前立腺がん治療10年の歩み)
Consumer Updates September 24, 2014
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths among American men.This year marks the tenth anniversary of the approval of docetaxel, the first chemotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer that showed a survival benefit. Since docetaxel, five additional therapies have been approved, and all of them have shown improvements in survival.

◇NCI (National Cancer Institute) Cancer Research News◇
Dana-Farber researchers identify early sign of pancreatic cancer(ダナ·ファーバーがん研究所、マサチューセッツ工科大学など:膵臓がんの早期兆候「分枝鎖アミノ酸増加」を特定)
NCI Cancer Center News (Posted: 09/29/2014)
Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and other institutions have discovered a sign of the early development of pancreatic cancer – an upsurge in certain amino acids that occurs before the disease is diagnosed and symptoms appear.

Massachusetts General researchers find treatment is effective against ROS1-positive lung cancer in a small trial(マサチューセッツ総合病院:効果的ROS1遺伝子の再配列によって、標的療法薬クリゾチニブによる治療で、ROS1陽性肺腫瘍の成長が停止)
NCI Cancer Center News (Posted: 09/29/2014)
Treatment with the targeted therapy drug crizotinib effectively halted the growth of lung tumors driven by rearrangements of the ROS1 gene in a small clinical trial.

Researchers at Broad Institute and MIT engineer "Cas9" animal models to study disease and inform drug discovery(ハーバード・ブロード研究所、マサチューセッツ工科大学:「Cas9マウス」モデルを使用したCRISPR-Cas9ゲノム編集システム)
NCI Cancer Center News (Posted: 09/26/2014)
Researchers from the Broad Institute and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have created a new mouse model to simplify application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for in vivo genome editing experiments.

Dana-Farber researchers find that a novel compound prevents metastasis of multiple myeloma in mouse studies(ダナ·ファーバーがん研究所:新規化合物「olaptesed pegol」は、マウスの研究で多発性骨髄腫の転移を防ぐ)
NCI Cancer Center News (Posted: 09/26/2014)
In a significant advance against the problem of cancer metastasis, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute scientists have shown that a specially developed compound can impede multiple myeloma from spreading to the bones in mice. The findings, published in the Sept. 25 issue of Cell Reports, suggest the technique can protect human patients, as well, from one of the most deadly aspects of cancer.

USC researchers find that a single genetic change can cause cancerous tumors in a child’s eyes(USC眼科研究所:子供の網膜芽細胞腫とRB1遺伝子)
NCI Cancer Center News (Posted: 09/25/2014)
Researchers have answered the long-standing question of why mutations to a particular gene primarily cause tumors of the retina and not of other cell types. Led by experts at the USC Eye Institute, the study could reveal new cellular signaling pathways relevant to retinal development, cancer development and the development of novel therapies.

Vanderbilt study questions accuracy of lung cancer screens in some geographic regions(ヴァンダービルト大学医療センター:FDG-PET技術と真菌性肺疾患の誤診)
NCI Cancer Center News (Posted: 09/24/2014)
A new analysis of published studies found that FDG-PET technology is less accurate in diagnosing lung cancer versus benign disease in regions where infections like histoplasmosis or tuberculosis are common.

Massachusetts General mouse study reveals gene expression patterns in pancreatic CTCs (マサチューセッツ総合病院:膵臓の循環腫瘍細胞における遺伝子発現パターンが明らかに⇒ECM遺伝子を標的にすることで、腫瘍微小環境とのCTCの両方を破壊することができるかどうかを調査する必要)
NCI Cancer Center News (Posted: 09/23/2014)
Analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer identified distinct patterns of gene expression in several groups of CTCs, including significant differences from the primary tumor that may contribute to the ability to generate metastases.

Dana-Farber researchers articulate the fine line between breast cancer and normal tissues(ブリガム·アンド·ウィメンズ病院:乳がん、正常組織との間に微妙な境界線をDESI質量分析イメージングで同定⇒ 乳がん手術の外科医の40%が、初期動作中にすべてのがん性組織除去に失敗することがある)
NCI Cancer Center News (Posted: 09/23/2014)
Up to 40 percent of patients undergoing breast cancer surgery require additional operations because surgeons may fail to remove all the cancerous tissue in the initial operation.

◇UK, Cancer Research UK◇
Calming down immune cells could hold key to melanoma treatment(免疫細胞の沈静化が、メラノーマ治療の鍵)
Cancer Research UK 25 September 2014
Cancer Research UK scientists at The University of Manchester found that chemical signals produced by a type of immune cell, called macrophages, also act as a survival signal for melanoma cells. When the researchers blocked the macrophages’ ability to make this signal - called TNF alpha - melanoma tumours were much smaller and easier to treat.

<News Release>
Bristol-Myers Squibb Announces Multiple Regulatory Milestones for Opdivo (nivolumab) in the U.S. and European Union
Bristol-Myers Squibb  September 26, 2014

Roche’s Avastin and Xeloda show benefit for women with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer in two new Phase III studies
Roche Basel, 25 September 2014
ESMO:ゼローダとアバスチンの適応拡大試験 Her2陰性の転移性乳がん(海外医薬ニュース2014年9月28日号:日本語) 

Amgen Submits Biologics License Application for Investigational BiTE® Immunotherapy Blinatumomab
Amgen Sept. 22, 2014
アムジェンは、AMG 103(blinatumomab)を米国で承認申請した。フィラデルフィア染色体陰性の前駆B急性リンパ性白血病の成人に用いる。承認申請の根拠となった第二相単群試験では再発・難治性患者の34%が完全寛解、メジアン生存期間は6ヶ月だった。主な有害事象は熱性好中球減少症など骨髄抑制と、脳症も見られたようだ。6週サイクルで4週間、連続点滴静注する。

<Other News>
Roche Breast Cancer Drug Perjeta Appears to Greatly Extend Patients’ Lives (ロシュの乳がん抗がん剤「Perjeta」患者の命を大幅に延長、前例のない成功)
SEPT. 28, 2014 New York Times
ロシュの乳がん治療薬、併用投与で生存期間さらに長く (09/29/2014 ウォール・ストリート・ジャーナル日本:日本語)

ScienceDaily<type of cancer>
◆Breast Cancer News -- ScienceDaily(乳がん)
Trastuzumab should remain as standard of care for HER2-positive breast cancer, trial suggests(HER2陽性乳がんの標準治療としてトラスツズマブは残るべき)
Mayo Clinic September 29, 2014

new role for estrogen in pathology of breast cancer discovered(エストロゲン陽性乳がんとエストロゲン)
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign September 29, 2014

Pertuzumab adds 16 months survival benefit to trastuzumab and chemotherapy treatment for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer(HER2陽性転移性乳がん患者に対するpertuzumabの優位)
European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) September 28, 2014

Decision analysis can help women make choices about breast reconstruction(女性の乳房再建についての選択に意思決定分析が寄与)
Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins September 26, 2014

How the ends of chromosomes are maintained for cancer cell immortality(がん細胞の永久増殖とテロメア)
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania September 25, 2014

Skirt size increase linked to 33 percent greater postmenopausal breast cancer risk(スカートサイズの増加は、閉経後乳がんのリスクにリンク)
BMJ-British Medical Journal September 24, 2014

◆Cervical Cancer News -ScienceDaily(子宮頸がん)
Adding cediranib to chemotherapy improves progression-free survival for metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer, phase II trial shows(化学療法にcediranibを追加すると、転移性または再発性子宮頸がんの無増悪生存率を改善)
European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) September 28, 2014 

Minority background, low education, and low income negatively influence HPV vaccine series completion(マイノリティとHPVワクチン)
Taylor & Francis September 26, 2014

Human papilloma virus vaccination provides long-term protection(HPVワクチン接種と保護)
Deutsches Aerzteblatt International September 25, 2014

◆Colon Cancer News -- ScienceDaily(大腸がん)
New anti-cancer peptide vaccines and inhibitors developed(新たに開発された抗がんペプチドワクチンとペプチド阻害剤)
Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center September 24, 2014

◆Leukemia News -- ScienceDaily(白血病)
Dual purpose of cancer drug in regulating expression of genes discovered(5アザ-CdR:デシタビンによって誘導される遺伝子の体の脱メチル化と治療標的)
University of Southern California - Health Sciences September 25, 2014

Good news for young patients with a leukemia subtype associated with a poor prognosis(予後不良に関連付けられている白血病のサブタイプを持つ若い患者に朗報)
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital September 24, 2014

Gene mutation discovered in blood disorder aplastic anemia(重篤な血液疾患の原因となる遺伝子変異を同定)
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia September 23, 2014

◆Lung Cancer News -- ScienceDaily(肺がん)
Promising results shown with targeted approaches in subsets of non-small cell lung cancer(dabrafenibは、化学療法後に進行したBRAFのV600E変異型非小細胞肺がんを有する患者において有意な抗腫瘍活性)
European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) September 29, 2014

Customizing chemotherapy in lung cancer: New phase II data reported(肺がんにおける化学療法のカスタマイズ)
European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) September 27, 2014

New research outlines promising therapies for small cell lung cancer(小細胞肺がんのための有望な治療法)
University Hospitals Case Medical Center September 25, 2014