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Cancer Topics Index of Japan(02/22~02/28/2016)海外:Overseas 海外がん情報とプレスリリースまとめ

ヴィトルヴィウス的人間2
Cancer Topics Index of Japan(02/22~02/28/2016)海外:Overseas
◇Types of cancer NewsBox がん種別ニュースボックス◇ (Link)

Flags 【海外:overseas】
gettyimages-476952193.jpg
<Featured article:注目記事>
【Controlling Cancer:がんコントロール】【adaptive strategy:適応戦略】
Moffitt Researchers Develop a Novel Cancer Treatment Approach Based on Evolutionary Principals to Inhibit Chemo-Resistance, Prolong Progression-Free Survival (February 24, 2016 Press Release:Moffitt Cancer Center)
Controlling Cancer May Be Better Than Getting Rid of It Entirely: Study (Feb. 24, 2016 TIME)
Radical cancer treatment seeks to control rather than destroy tumours (24 February 2016 theguardian)
Cancer: Low doses of chemotherapy 'may control disease more effectively' (25 February 2016 Independent)
※Moffitt Cancer Centerの低容量化学療法に注目!!がん細胞を殺すことのみに意味はあるのか?

<USA, FDA, NIH, NCI>
◇NIH (National Institutes of Health)
【Precision Medicine Project:オバマ大統領】
wh_precision_medicine_header2.jpg
NIH Taking First Steps on Huge Precision Medicine Project (Feb 25, 2016 ABC News)
※オバマ大統領と100万人のボランティアが推進するPrecision Medicine Projectの第一ステップ

【photon-counting CT scanner:最新CTスキャナー】
20160224-ct-scan.jpg
NIH uses photon-counting CT scanner in patients for the first time (February 24, 2016 NIH News Release)
The new technology may be used to help identify and characterize tumors, plaques or vessels that are smaller than half a millimeter. For many patients, finding a tumor that size may make a difference in identifying if it is benign or could be cancerous.

◇NCI (National Cancer Institute)
【Radiation Therapy:放射線療法の問題】
Missed Radiation Therapy Sessions Increase Risk of Cancer Recurrence (February 26, 2016 by NCI Staff)
Patients who miss radiation therapy sessions during cancer treatment have an increased risk of their disease returning, even if they eventually complete their course of radiation treatment, according to a new study.

【Genetic Reprogramming:リプログラミング】
Study of Cancer’s Origins Reveals Genetic Reprogramming of Single Cells (February 24, 2016 by NCI Staff)
Researchers have created a model of cancer in zebrafish that allows them to capture live images of tumors forming and growing, in some cases from a single cell. Using the model, the researchers characterized some of the early genetic and epigenetic changes associated with melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer.
A zebrafish melanoma model reveals emergence of neural crest identity during melanoma initiation.(PubMed/Science. 2016 Jan 29)

【Childhood Brain Tumor:小児脳腫瘍】
Gene Fusion May Drive Rare Childhood Brain Tumor (February 22, 2016 by NCI Staff)
Researchers have identified a genetic rearrangement that may drive the development of a rare benign brain tumor in children. The rearrangement, which causes parts of two genes to fuse, may spur the growth of tumors through three distinct biological mechanisms simultaneously, the researchers found.
MYB-QKI rearrangements in angiocentric glioma drive tumorigenicity through a tripartite mechanism.(PubMed/Nat Genet. 2016 Mar)

◇FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) News
【承認】【neuroendocrine tumors (NET):神経内分泌腫瘍】
Everolimus (Afinitor) (February 26, 2016 FDA Approved Drugs)
On February 26, 2016, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration approved everolimus (Afinitor , Novartis) for the treatment of adult patients with progressive, well-differentiated non-functional, neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of gastrointestinal (GI) or lung origin with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic disease.

【承認】【follicular lymphoma:濾胞性リンパ腫】
Obinutuzumab (February 26, 2016 FDA Approved Drugs)
On February 26, 2016, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration approved obinutuzumab (Gazyva Injection, Genentech, Inc.) for use in combination with bendamustine followed by obinutuzumab monotherapy for the treatment of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) who relapsed after, or are refractory to, a rituximab-containing regimen. Obinutuzumab was previously approved for use in combination with chlorambucil for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

【適応拡大】【breast cancer:乳がん】
Palbociclib (IBRANCE Capsules) (February 19, 2016 FDA Approved Drugs)
On February 19, 2016, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration approved palbociclib (IBRANCE Capsules, Pfizer, Inc.) in combination with fulvestrant for the treatment of women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer with disease progression following endocrine therapy.
Pfizer Receives Expanded FDA Approval For IBRANCE (palbociclib) In HR+, HER2- Metastatic Breast Cancer (February 19, 2016 Press Release:ファイザー Pfizer)
※ホルモン受容体陽性でher2陰性末期・転移性乳がん対象にCDK4/6阻害剤の適応拡大

◇EU, EMA, CHMP, Cancer Research UK, NICE◇
【扁平上皮非小細胞性肺癌二次治療の単剤投与】
Giotrif (25 February 2016 EMA/CHMP)

【適応拡大】【扁平上皮以外の非小細胞性肺癌や腎細胞腫の二次治療】
Opdivo (25 February 2016 EMA/CHMP)
Bristol-Myers Squibb Receives Two Positive CHMP Opinions for Opdivo® (nivolumab) for Patients with Previously Treated Advanced Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Renal Cell Carcinoma (February 26, 2016 Press Release:ブリストル・マイヤーズ Bristol-Myers Squibb)

<Topics>
【Book:書評】
20160301.jpg
Cancer: A Time for Skeptics Jerome Groopman (MARCH 10, 2016 ISSUE The New York Review of Books)
The Death of Cancer (Amaon)
by Vincent T. DeVita Jr. and Elizabeth DeVita-Raeburn
Sarah Crichton Books/ Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 324 pp., $28.00

<News Release Ⅰ>
【glioblastoma:神経膠芽腫】
UNC-Chapel Hill researchers make groundbreaking discovery, use skin cells to kill cancer (Feb. 24, 2016 News Release:The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
※皮膚細胞のリプログラミングを利用した神経膠芽腫のパーソナライズ化された治療法

<News Release Ⅱ>
【urothelial bladder cancer:尿路上皮膀胱がん】
Durvalumab granted Breakthrough Therapy designation by US FDA for treatment of patients with PD-L1 positive urothelial bladder cancer (17 February 2016 AstraZeneca)
アストラゼネカのDURVALUMAB、PD-L1陽性膀胱がん治療薬として米国FDAにより画期的治療薬に指定 (02/22/2016 Press Release:アストラゼネカ AstraZeneca)
durvalumab(MEDI4736)は、現在開発中のプログラム細胞死リガンド1(PD-L1)ヒトモノクローナル抗体です。腫瘍はPD-L1を発現し、殺細胞性Tリンパ球のPD-1に結合することで、自らが免疫システムにより探知されるのを回避します。durvalumabはPD-1とのPD-L1の相互作用を阻害し、腫瘍の免疫からの逃避機構が働かないよう作用します。durvalumabは、他の免疫治療薬と並行して、患者さんの免疫システムを活性化し、がんを攻撃するように開発されています。durvalumabは単剤療法もしくはtremelimumabとの併用療法において、非小細胞肺がん、頭頸部がん、膀胱がん、胃がん、膵臓がん、肝細胞がんおよび血液がんを対象とした広範な臨床試験プログラムにおいて検討されています。

<Medical Journal & Other News>
【pancreatic cancer:膵がん】
Identification of four Pancreatic Cancer subtypes offers new treatment insight (25 Feb 2016 News:the University of Glasgow)
Scientists discover pancreatic cancer is four separate diseases (25 Feb 2016 theguardian)
がんゲノミクス:膵臓がんのゲノミクス (03/03/2016 日本語:Nature 531, 7592)
※膵がんの4つの独立したサブタイプ[Squamous/Pancreatic Progenitor/ADEX/Immunogenic] 新たな治療法確立へ

【Ovarian Cancer:卵巣がん】
Weekly vs. Every-3-Week Paclitaxel and Carboplatin for Ovarian Cancer (February 25, 2016 N Engl J Med)
卵巣癌に対するパクリタキセル+カルボプラチン併用療法におけるパクリタキセルの週 1 回投与と 3 週ごと投与との比較 (N Engl J Med:日本語 南江堂 洋書部)

【amino acids:アミノ酸】
Tumour-specific proline vulnerability uncovered by differential ribosome codon reading (Published online 15 February 2016 Nature 530)
がんの代謝:アミノ酸除去でがんと闘う (02/25/2016 Nature 530)

【Artificial Turf And Cancer:人工芝とがん】
Government Finally To Look Into Possible Link Between Artificial Turf And Cancer (FEB 13, 2016 Forbes)
人工芝とがんの関連性、米政府が調査を開始 血液がんを誘発か (02/22/2016 Forbes)

【skin cancer risk:皮膚がん】
201603.jpg
Gel manicures: The good, the bad and the UV (Feb. 2, 2016 American Academy of Dermatology)
キレイなジェルネイルで皮膚がんの恐れ リスクを避ける3つのアドバイス (02/22/2016 j-cast)

【endometrial cancer:子宮体がん】
Obesity and endometrial hyperplasia and cancer in premenopausal women: a systematic review.(PubMed/Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Jan 29)
BMIが高い女性は子宮体がんになりやすい? 文献調査による検証
from American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
(02/25/2016 MEDLEY:日本語)

【Familial Risk and Heritability of Cancer:がんの遺伝リスク】
Familial Risk and Heritability of Cancer Among Twins in Nordic Countries.(PubMed/JAMA. 2016 Jan 5)
遺伝性の強いがんは皮膚がんと前立腺がん 北欧で20万人を追跡調査 (02/28/2016 エイジングスタイル)
from 米国医師会誌「JAMA」2016年1月5日号(Vol 315, No. 1)

【Glioblastoma:膠芽腫】
Maintenance Therapy With Tumor-Treating Fields Plus Temozolomide vs Temozolomide Alone for Glioblastoma: A Randomized Clinical Trial.(PubMed/JAMA. 2015 Dec 15)
電場をかけてがん細胞が増えるのを止めるTTFとは 695人を検証
from JAMA
(02/25/2016 MEDLEY:日本語)
Imagen1M.png
<記事を追跡:Follow-up story>
がん治療の第5極:腫瘍治療電場TTF 京都大学医学部 脳神経外科 峰晴陽平 (京都がん研究会メールマガジン 第135号 2015年7月)
非侵襲的脳腫瘍治療デバイス「NovoTTF-100A」が米国で承認獲得 (04/21/2011 日経メディカル癌Experts)
審議結果報告書 [類 別]機械器具 12 理学診療用器具[一般的名称]交流電場腫瘍治療システム[販 売 名]NovoTTF-100A システム[申 請 者]NovoCure Ltd.(02/25/2015 厚生労働省医薬食品局)

【Childhood Cancer:小児がん】
Impact of Tailored Education on Awareness of Personal Risk for Therapy-Related Complications Among Childhood Cancer Survivors.(PubMed/J Clin Oncol. 2015 Nov 20)
小児がん経験者のための個別健康リスク説明 3回のセッションで自身の健康リスクの認識が改善
from Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
(02/22/2016 MEDLEY:日本語)

【Cancer rehabilitation:リハビリテーション】
Cancer rehabilitation: a barometer for survival? (PubMed/Support Care Cancer. 2015 Oct;23)
がん治療後の生存期間が長い患者の特徴は? リハビリによって自立して生活している人 (02/21/2016 エイジングスタイル)

【myeloid leukemia:骨髄性白血病】
Cancer Treatment Breakthrough: Researchers Engineer A Way To Make Leukemia Cells Kill Each Other (Oct 21, 2015 Medical Daily)
骨髄性白血病:ガン細胞が免疫細胞に変化できる!(02/24/2016 iMedi:日本語)
from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI)
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