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Cancer Topics Index of Japan(03/07~03/13/2016)海外:Overseas 海外がん情報とプレスリリースまとめ

ヴィトルヴィウス的人間2
Cancer Topics Index of Japan(03/07~03/13/2016)海外:Overseas

Flags 【海外:overseas】

◇NCI (National Cancer Institute)◇
【Expanding Immunotherapy Opportunities:免疫療法の拡大】
neoantigen-screen-enlarge.jpg
Novel Strategy Isolates Immune Cells in the Blood that Recognize Melanoma (March 11, 2016 by NCI Staff)
Patients with metastatic melanoma have experienced dramatic tumor regressions in early clinical trials of adoptive cell transfer—a technique in which immune cells are collected from patients, expanded in the laboratory, and infused back into patients to attack the cancer. However, to date, these immune cells have been harvested only from solid tumor tissue, a process that requires invasive surgery and is not always possible.

【quadrivalent HPV vaccine:子宮頸がんワクチン】
hpv-vaccine-girls-factoid-article.png
HPV Infections Targeted by Vaccine Decrease in U.S. (March 9, 2016 by NCI Staff)
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types targeted by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine has declined by nearly two-thirds among teenage girls since HPV vaccination was recommended in the United States, according to new study results. The study also is the first to show a reduction in national prevalence of these four HPV types among U.S. women in their early twenties since the vaccine was introduced.

【Cooperative Human Tissue NetworkExit Disclaimer (CHTN):NCIのネットワーク】
Fueling Basic Discovery: NCI’s Cooperative Human Tissue Network (March 7, 2016 by I. Lubensky, R. Chauqui, and J. Demchok)
Human biospecimens, as any cancer researcher will tell you, are a foundational resource in basic and clinical cancer research. And with the launch last year of President Obama’s Precision Medicine Initiative and his announcement in January about the launch of the National Cancer Moonshot Initiative, NCI-supported biospecimen programs have taken on renewed importance.

【The Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer:がん死亡は、2003年から2012年にかけて毎年1.5%減少。しかし肝がんは増加傾向】
Annual Report to the Nation: Cancer Death Rates Continue to Decline; Increase in Liver Cancer Deaths Cause For Concern (Posted: March 9, 2016 Press Release:NCI)
The Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer (1975-2012) shows that death rates continued to decline for all cancers combined, as well as for most cancer sites for men and women of all major racial and ethnic populations. The overall cancer death rates for both sexes combined decreased by 1.5 percent per year from 2003 to 2012. Incidence rates—new cancer cases that are diagnosed per 100,000 people in the U.S.—decreased among men and remained stable for women between 2003 and 2012.

◇FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) News◇
【承認】【NSCLC】
FDA Approves Crizotinib Capsules (March 11, 2016 FDA Approved Drugs)
On March 11, 2016, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration approved crizotinib capsules (Xalkori, Pfizer, Inc.) for the treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors are ROS1-positive. Crizotinib was first approved in 2011 for the treatment of patients whose tumors are anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive.
※腫瘍ROS1陽性転移性非小細胞肺癌(NSCLC)患者を治療するためのクリゾチニブカプセル(Xalkori、ファイザー社)を承認

【承認】【適応拡大】【進行性非機能性神経内分泌腫瘍(NET)】
FDA approves new indication for Novartis drug Afinitor® for progressive, nonfunctional GI and lung neuroendocrine tumors (NET)(FEB 26, 2016 Media Release:ノバルティス ファーマ Novartis Pharmaceuticals)
「アフィニトール®」、消化管/肺原発の進行性非機能性神経内分泌腫瘍(NET)の効能追加承認をFDAより取得 (03/10/2016 Press Release:ノバルティス ファーマ Novartis Pharmaceuticals)
「アフィニトール[Afinitor]®」(エベロリムス)は今回、消化管/肺原発の局所進行、転移性または切除不能の高分化型進行性非機能性神経内分泌腫瘍(NET)を有する成人患者さんの治療薬として米国食品医薬品局(FDA)から承認を取得しました。このほか、「アフィニトール」は米国やEU全土を含む世界99カ国で膵原発の局所進行、転移性または切除不能の進行性NETの適応で承認されています。さらに、米国とEUを含む120カ国以上で、血管内皮増殖因子(VEGF)標的治療薬による治療中または治療後(米国では、スニチニブおよびソラフェニブによる治療後)に疾患が進行した転移性腎細胞がん治療薬として承認されています。

◇EU, EMA, CHMP, Cancer Research UK, NICE◇
Zydelig:ザイデリグ】一般名:idelalisib 商品名:Zydelig PI3Kデルタ阻害剤
EMA reviews cancer medicine Zydelig (11/03/2016 Press Release:EMA)
Gilead Cancer Drug Reviewed After Deaths in Combo Trials (March 12, 2016 Bloomberg)
米ギリアドの血液がん治療薬、欧州当局が再調査-併用時の試験で死者 (03/12/2016 ブルームバーグ)

<Medical Journal & Other News>
【CPM:予防的乳房切除術】
Rates of prophylactic mastectomy have tripled in past decade despite no survival benefit (11 MAR 2016 EurekAlert!)
New research from Brigham and Women's Hospital finds many women choosing to remove a healthy breast are at low risk for developing cancer in that breast
from Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH)
Double mastectomy after breast cancer is pointless for most women, experts find (11 Mar 2016 Telegraph.co.uk)

【HER2 positive breast cancers:乳がん】
treatment-4.jpg
Drug combination shrinks HER2 positive breast cancers within 11 days (10 March 2016 Cancer Research UK)
Lapatinib and trastuzumab shrinks HER2+ breast cancer in 11 days after diagnosis (10 MAR 2016 EurekAlert!)
腫瘍が11日間で消滅も 画期的乳がん治療発見か「抗HER2薬」(03/12/2016 Techinsight)

【neuroendocrine cancers:神経内分泌がん】新しいライフライン177Lutetium-DOTATATE
New lifeline for patients with inoperable neuroendocrine cancers (11 MAR 2016 EurekAlert!)
Treatment advances and new centres of excellence offer lifeline to patients with inoperable neuroendocrine cancers
from the 13th Annual Conference of the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS)


【kidney cancer:腎臓がん】手術後のスニチニブまたはソラフェニブを追求すべきではない
Widely used kidney cancer drugs can't stop recurrence (10 MAR 2016 EurekAlert!)
Sunitinib or sorafenib after surgery should not be pursued, Abramson cancer center researcher says
from Abramson Cancer Center (ACC) of the University of Pennsylvania


【Kidney Transplants:腎臓移植】
01.png
New Procedure Allows Kidney Transplants From Any Donor (MARCH 9, 2016 The New York Times)
どんなドナーからでも移植手術が可能になる革新的な新技術が誕生 (03/11/2016 Gigazine)

【colon cancer:大腸がん】
High-fat diet enhances stemness and tumorigenicity of intestinal progenitors (3 March 2016 Nature 531)
High-fat diets may spur cancer by activating tumor-prone stem cells (Mar 4, 2016 arstechnica)
高脂肪食を摂りすぎると結腸がんのリスクが高まるという研究結果 (03/08/2016 Gigazine:日本語)

【Gastric Cancer:胃がん】
Dietary Flavonols Intake and Risk of Esophageal and Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies.(PubMed/Nutrients. 2016 Feb 16)
女性の胃がんの多さには、食事のフラボノールが関係していた? 複数の研究報告から統合
from Nutrients
(03/12/2016 MEDLEY:日本語)

【Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC):肝細胞がん】
NAFLD causes selective CD4+ T lymphocyte loss and promotes hepatocarcinogenesis (Published online 02 March 2016 Nature 531)pdf
がん:肝疾患と肝臓がんを結び付ける (03/10/2016 Nature 531)

【non-small cell lung cancer:非小細胞肺がん】
Safety and antitumour activity of durvalumab plus tremelimumab in non-small cell lung cancer: a multicentre, phase 1b study.(PubMed/Lancet Oncol. 2016 Feb 5)
がんと戦う「免疫チェックポイント阻害薬」、2剤併用[durvalumab plus tremelimumab]の副作用は? 非小細胞肺がん患者102人で用量を検討
from The Lancet. Oncology
(03/09/2016 MEDLEY:日本語)
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