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Cancer Topics Index 04/21/2016(Daily Test version/ 日刊テスト版)No.14

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Cancer Topics Index 04/21/2016(Daily Test version/ 日刊テスト版) No.14

Flags 【海外:overseas】
◇NCI (National Cancer Institute)◇
【メルケル細胞がんとPembrolizumabその後の展望】
immune-checkpoint-enlarge.jpg
Pembrolizumab Shows Promise in Patients with Rare Form of Skin Cancer (April 19, 2016 by NCI Staff)
In a small clinical trial, more than half of the patients with an aggressive form of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma responded to the drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda®), which strengthens the immune response against cancer. Overall, the responses have been longer-lasting than those typically seen in patients with this very rare cancer who have received chemotherapy.The 26 patients in this phase II trial had an advanced form of the disease, and none had received prior systemic treatment. Among the 25 patients who could be evaluated, 14 patients (56 percent) had a complete or partial response, Paul Nghiem, M.D., Ph.D., of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center reported on April 19 at the annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) in New Orleans.

logo-clinicaltrials-gov.png
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※2週間前の情報を基準として掲載。一部の記事(がんと直接関連しないもの)は割愛しています。
8 studies found for: cancer | received from 04/06/2016 to 04/06/2016

【非小細胞肺癌がん】
1 Active, not recruiting
Detection Cell Free DNA in Lung Cancer Patients
Condition: Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Intervention:
Sponsor:Sun Yat-sen University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02738593

【慢性骨髄性白血病/消化管間質腫瘍】
2 Recruiting
Long Term Effects of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy on Ovarian Reserve and Fertility in Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia or Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor
Conditions: Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Premenopausal
Interventions: Other: Cytology Specimen Collection Procedure; Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis; Other: Questionnaire Administration; Procedure: Ultrasonography
Sponsor:University of Southern California
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02734823

【転移性膵がん】
3 Not yet recruiting
A Study of Galunisertib (LY2157299) and Durvalumab (MEDI4736) in Participants With Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer
Condition: Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer
Interventions: Drug: Galunisertib; Drug: Durvalumab
Sponsor:Eli Lilly and Company
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02734160

【乳がん/乳房再建】
5 Active, not recruiting
PEGI to Improve Shared Decision-Making for Breast Reconstruction
Condition: Breast Cancer
Intervention: Behavioral: pre-consultation educational group intervention
Sponsor:University Health Network, Toronto
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02734121

【悪性黒色腫】
6 Not yet recruiting
Assessment of Response to Pembrolizumab in Metastatic Melanoma: Computed Tomography (CT) Texture Analysis as a Predictive Biomarker
Condition: Metastatic Melanoma
Interventions: Drug: Pembrolizumab; Procedure: CT Scan
Sponsor:Canadian Cancer Trials Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02740920

【頭頸部がん】
7 Recruiting
Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery
Conditions: Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Interventions: Drug: Cisplatin; Radiation: Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy; Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis
Sponsor:ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02734537

【臨床試験】
8 Not yet recruiting
Study Buddy for Cancer Trials
Condition: Improving Research Experience in Cancer Clinical Trials.
Intervention: Behavioral: Study Buddy
Sponsor:Boston Medical Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02742740

【びまん性大細胞型B細胞リンパ腫】
10 Not yet recruiting
A Study of Brentuximab Vedotin, Rituximab, and Dose Attenuated CHP in Elderly Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL)
Condition: Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
Interventions: Drug: Brentuximab vedotin; Drug: Rituximab; Drug: Cyclophosphamide; Drug: Doxorubicin; Drug: Prednisone
Sponsor:Patrick Reagan
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02734771

10 studies found for: cancer | received from 04/07/2016 to 04/07/2016

【膵がん】
1 Recruiting
IORT Followed by CCRT or SBRT for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
Condition: Pancreatic Cancer
Interventions: Radiation: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy(CCRT); Radiation: Stereotactic Radiotherapy(SBRT); Drug: S-1
Sponsor:Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02734680

【固形がん】
3 Recruiting
A Dose Escalation Study of SDX-7320 in Patients With Advanced Refractory or Late-Stage Solid Tumors
Conditions: Advanced Malignancy; Advanced Solid Tumors; Neoplasm; Metastasis
Intervention: Drug: SDX-7320
Sponsor:SynDevRx, Inc.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02743637

【乳がん】
4 Not yet recruiting
Implementation of a "Remission" Consultation in the Management of Patients Treated for Localized Breast Cancer
Condition: Breast Neoplasms
Intervention: Other: Remission Consultation
Sponsor:Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nīmes
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02740491

【神経内分泌腫瘍】
5 Not yet recruiting
177Lutethium - Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (Lu-PRRT) Plus Capecitabine Versus Lu-PRRT in FDG Positive, Gastro-entero-pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
Conditions: GEP-NET Tumors; Gastro-entero-pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
Interventions: Drug: Capecitabine; Drug: Lu-PRRT
Sponsor:Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la cura dei Tumori
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02736448

【乳がん】
6 Not yet recruiting
A Trial of Neoadjuvant Everolimus Plus Letrozole Versus FEC in Women With ER-positive, HER2-negative Breast Cancer
Condition: Breast Cancer
Interventions: Drug: Everolimus; Drug: Letrozole; Drug: Fluorouracil; Drug: Epirubicin; Drug: Cyclophosphamide
Sponsor:Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02742051

【神経内分泌腫瘍】
7 Recruiting
PEPTIDE RECEPTOR RADIONUCLIDE THERAPY WITH 177Lu-DOTATATE ASSOCIATED WITH METRONOMIC CAPECITABINE IN PATIENTS AFFECTED BY AGGRESSIVE GASTRO-ENTERO-PANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS
Conditions: Neuroendocrine Tumors; Gastro Entero Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
Interventions: Drug: 28 GBq 177Lu-DOTATATE; Drug: 22 GBq 177Lu-DOTATATE
Sponsor:Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la cura dei Tumori
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02736500

【マントル細胞リンパ腫】
8 Not yet recruiting
Obinutuzumab in Combination With Ibrutinib in Treating Patients With Relapsed Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Conditions: Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Interventions: Drug: Ibrutinib; Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis; Biological: Obinutuzumab
Sponsor:OHSU Knight Cancer Institute
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02736617

【放射線性肺臓炎】
9 Not yet recruiting
Novel Lung Imaging in Adults Undergoing Radiation Therapy to Assess for Radiation Pneumonitis
Conditions: Lung Cancer; Breast Cancer; Mediastinum Lesion; Radiation Pneumonitis
Intervention: Device: High fidelity functional lung imaging
Sponsor:Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02735746

【前立腺がん】
10 Recruiting
Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer
Condition: Prostate Carcinoma
Intervention: Device: carbon-ion radiotherapy
Sponsor:Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02739659

【黒色腫】
13 Active, not recruiting
Study of Autoimmune Disease Complications Following Ipilimumab Treatment Among Melanoma Patients With Underlying Autoimmune Diseases
Condition: Melanoma
Intervention: Biological: Ipilimumab
Sponsor:Bristol-Myers Squibb
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT02739386

◇EU, EMA, CHMP, Cancer Research UK, NICE◇
【免疫療法薬の進展】
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Studies show continued promise for immunotherapy drugs (19 April 2016 Cancer Research UK)
Several new immunotherapy drugs are continuing to show benefits across a range of cancer types, according to a slew of new data presented at a US conference.The drugs, known as checkpoint inhibitors, are available on the NHS for melanoma treatment, and work by provoking a patient’s immune system to target their cancer. The new results confirm their benefit for some of these patients, and also suggested they can help certain patients with head and neck cancers, and those with a rare, virus-linked skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma.

【マンマプリント試験による患者選択】
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Test could spare breast cancer patients unnecessary chemotherapy (19 April 2016 In collaboration with the Press Association)
A gene test may improve the way doctors treating women with early-stage breast cancer identify those who can safely avoid post-surgery chemotherapy.The initial results of the MINDACT clinical trial show the MammaPrint test, which looks at a 70-gene signature inside cancer cells, can detect which patients benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.

<Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices>
【オプジーボ】
U.S. Food and Drug Administration Accepts for Priority Review Bristol-Myers Squibb’s Supplemental Biologics License Application for Opdivo® (nivolumab) for the Treatment of Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients (April 14, 2016 Bristol-Myers Squibb)
米国食品医薬品局(FDA)がオプジーボ®(ニボルマブ)の古典的ホジキンリンパ腫に関するブリストル・マイヤーズ スクイブ社の生物学的製剤承認一部変更申請を優先審査対象として受理 (04/19/2016 ブリストル・マイヤーズ スクイブ Bristol-Myers Squibb/小野薬品工業 ONO PHARMACEUTICAL) pdf

<Medical Journal & Other News>
headline.jpg
【致死細胞毒素を送達することができる標的にミサイル】JOURNAL:Nature Communications
Targeted missiles against aggressive cancer cells (04/20/2016 EurekAlert!/LUND UNIVERSITY)
Targeted missiles that can enter cancer cells and deliver lethal cell toxins without harming surrounding healthy tissue. This has been a long-standing vision in cancer research, but it has proved difficult to accomplish. A research group at Lund University in Sweden has now taken some crucial steps in this direction."For several years, we tried to elucidate which target proteins on the cancer cells' surface can be used to help these 'missiles' to gain entry into cells. Developing this method has been complicated, and we feel pleased to finally have succeeded", says Professor of Clinical Oncology Mattias Belting. His research group recently published this new method in Nature Communications.

【低容量アスピリン服用でがん生存率を20%高める】JOURNAL:PLOS ONE
Taking aspirin could increase cancer survival by 20 percent (04/20/2016 EurekAlert!/CARDIFF UNIVERSITY)
Patients receiving cancer treatment could increase their chance of survival by up to 20% and help stop their cancer from spreading by taking a low-dose of aspirin, new research suggests.In a systematic review of the available scientific literature a team from Cardiff University's School of Medicine found a significant reduction in mortality and cancer spread by patients who took a low-level dose of aspirin in addition to their cancer treatment (average study follow-up length over 5 years).

【SRC-3をターゲットにした小分子SI-2】JOURNAL:Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
New class of small molecule drug, SI-2, has potential for improving cancer treatment (04/19/2016 EurekAlert!/BAYLOR COLLEGE OF MEDICINE)
Cancer cells communicate with their environment through cell molecules that pass on signals to the inside of the cell. The signals help cancer cells multiply and migrate, spreading the disease. One strategy to fight cancer is with drugs that block the cell molecules that pass on the signals that lead to cancer growth. But cancer cells can quickly adapt to this tactic by ramping up the production of the blocked molecules. Baylor College of Medicine researchers are fighting cancer with a different approach. Instead of blocking messenger molecules, they accelerate their destruction. Their results, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, have the potential for improving cancer treatment.

【頭頸部がん】
Bristol-Myers's Opdivo Extends Survival in Head, Neck Cancer (April 19, 2016 Bloomberg)
ブリストルの「オプジーボ」、頭頸部がん患者の生存期間延ばす効果 (04/20/2016 Bloomberg)

Graphics 【日本国内:Japan】
<Press Release:日本国内>
【5-H-Y】
新たな抗がんメカニズムをもつ新規白金化合物 (04/21/2016 国立遺伝学研究所)
Chromatin folding and DNA replication inhibition mediated by a highly antitumor-active tetrazolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complex (Published online:20 April 2016 Scientific Reports 6)
近年開発された5-H-Yという新たな白金化合物が、シスプラチンなどの既存の白金製剤とは異なるメカニズムによって抗がん作用を示すことを明らかにしました。この5-H-Yはシスプラチンと同様に、DNAの複製やRNAの転写を阻害することによって細胞の増殖を抑制します。しかし、DNAへの架橋はほとんど起こさず、クロマチンを凝集させる作用があることを明らかにしました。実際に、シスプラチン耐性細胞においても5-H-Yは十分な抗がん作用を示すことも確認しています。この5-H-Yの抗がんメカニズムは、今後新たな抗がん剤を開発する上での重要な知見になると考えられます。

【腎細胞がん】
第107回米国がん研究会議で抗がん剤「レンバチニブ」とエベロリムスの併用投与による血管新生阻害作用の増強メカニズムならびに腎細胞がんに対する抗腫瘍効果についての非臨床研究成果を発表 (04/20/2016 エーザイ Eisai)

【ペムブロリズマブ】
免疫チェックポイント阻害剤(抗 PD-1 抗体)ペムブロリズマブ日本におけるコ・プロモーション契約締結のお知らせ (04/11/2016 MSD/大鵬薬品工業 Taiho Pharmaceutical) pdf

<News>
【胃がん】
新抗がん剤[ラムシルマブ]が契機 進行・再発胃がんの治療戦略に変化あり がん研究会有明病院消化器化学療法科・山口研成部長 (04/20/2016 日刊ゲンダイ)

【子宮頸がんワクチン】
ワクチンと脳障害の因果関係は不明 厚労省が見解 (04/19/2016 産経ニュース)

<新刊メタデータ:New Books>
book_sepia.jpg
【タイトル】国立がん研究センターの乳癌手術
著者:木下 貴之/大型本: 113ページ/出版社: 南山堂 (2016/4/13)/ISBN-10: 4525317310/ISBN-13: 978-4525317317/¥10,800

【タイトル】奇跡のシェフ (末期がん)
著者:神尾 哲男/単行本(ソフトカバー): 136ページ/出版社: 上毛新聞社 出版部 (2016/4/20)/ISBN-10: 4863521529/ISBN-13: 978-4863521520/¥1,512

<雑誌記事:Magazine/Medical journal>
Stockholm Public Library
◆がんサポート (5月号)/エビデンス社/発売日:2016年4月16日/価格(税込):1,200円
【タイトル】最新大腸がん特集
1 大腸がんの基礎知識 大腸がんはどんな病気?
 大腸がんは早期発見の場合 9割が治る!
 編集/「がんサポート」編集部

2 人工肛門のほうが良いケースも。手術選択は慎重に
 究極の肛門温存術「ISR」 治療成績とその適応は?
 監修/船橋公彦 東邦大学医療センター大森病院一般・消化器外科教授

3 基本的には治療ガイドラインに沿って治療
 高齢者の大腸がん治療では 併存疾患対策を十分に
 監修/中野大輔 がん・感染症センター都立駒込病院大腸外科

4 側方郭清を省略しても治療成績は同じ
 局所再発を抑える 下部直腸がんの術前化学放射線療法
 監修/川合一茂 東京大学医学部附属病院腫瘍外科講師

5 ステージIII(III)と再発リスクの高いステージII(II)が対象に
 大腸がん術後補助化学療法は、再発リスクを考慮して行う
 監修/鶴田雅士 慶應義塾大学医学部外科学教室(一般・消化器)助教

6 ストーマの専門家に相談を
化学療法中のストーマ対策は ストーマ周囲のスキンケアから
監修/工藤礼子 国立がん研究センター中央病院看護部皮膚・排泄ケア認定看護師

【タイトル】連載39 凄腕の医療人
 がん治療の最前線 温かい眼差しで患者を見守る
 中山優子 神奈川県立がんセンター放射線治療部部長

【タイトル】連載20 がんのチーム医療・施設訪問
 新設のブレストセンター チームを率いるのは3人の医師
 川口工業総合病院ブレストセンター(埼玉県川口市)

【タイトル】医学会レポート
 ~2016年米国臨床腫瘍学会消化器がんシンポジウム(ASCO GI2016)から~
 編集「がんサポート」編集部

◆医学のあゆみ (Vol.257 No.3)/医歯薬出版/発売日:2016年4月16日/価格(税込):1,188円
【タイトル】AYUMI 血液細胞の試験管内製造
・iPS 細胞技術を用いたがん抗原特異的キラーT 細胞の再生 
 増田喬子・河本 宏 
・iPS 細胞由来ミエロイド細胞の疾患治療への応用
 iPS 細胞を用いた癌とAlzheimer 病の治療法開発 千住 覚
・iPS 細胞技術によるNKT 細胞を標的としたがん免疫治療の開発 
 山田大輔・古関明彦
・キメラ抗原受容体を用いた養子免疫遺伝子療法 
 内堀亮介

【タイトル】TOPICS
・癌・腫瘍学 がん化学療法の標的としての低酸素誘導因子(HIF)活性化経路 
 四方田悠輔・掛谷秀昭

◆健康365 (2016年6月号)/エイチアンドアイ/発売日:2016年4月16日/価格(税込):590円
【タイトル】連続企画 がんに絶対負けない!腸の善玉菌を増やして進行がんも撃退
・四兆個の乳酸菌が腸内環境を整えて免疫力が向上![濃縮乳酸菌]は治療効果を高めて末期のがんも撃退すると医師が実証
・米国のがん学会でも注目!抗がん成分が豊富な北海道のキノコ[そらちたもぎ]で腸の免疫力が活性化しがんが縮小した
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